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: 50S- [24].

(. 51), .

- , , , , , , , , , . , , , , ; , , . -

: Escherichia coli Salmonella spp. ˲ r : Staphylococcus spp. Streptococcus spp.

Shigella spp. . Ȳ lli\

Klebsiella spp.

Yersinia spp.

: Neisseria spp.
Haemophilus influenzae |?||

Bordetella pertussis | : Listeria spp.

'Sn Corinebacterium diphtheriae
: Neisseria spp.

: Chlamydia spp.

.

Rickettsiaceae
   : Bacillus antracis
س

: Clostridium spp.

. Spirochaetaceae : . /

. 51.

, Haemophilus influenzae. , , , [3, 14, 17, 28]. , , , [35].

, , , [11, 29], 14,5-38% [6, 10].

, , , , [3, 9, 20].

, , , in vitro : (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Corinebacterium diphtheria, Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus pyogenes, Listeria spp., Clostridium spp.) - (Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria, Salmonella, Escherichia coli.

Shigella spp., Bordetella pertussis, Yersinia pestis, Brucella spp., Bacteroides spp.). , [1, 2, 4].

. 35 .

- - , [31, 34].

esis: chloramphenicol toxicity revisited. Intern. Med. J. 2005; 35: 626-628. Dionisi ./VI., Graziani C., Lucarelli C. et al. Molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant strains of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium and Monophasic variant isolated from human infections in Italy. Foodborne Pathog. Dis. 2009; 6: 711-717. Durupinar B. The effect of drugs on the immune response. Mikrobiyol. Bull. 1987; 21: 117-130. Estavoyer J.M., Singer P., Broda C., Baufle G.H. Hematotoxicity of thiamphenicol. Report of two cases of acute erythroblasto- penia (authors transl.). Sem. Hop. 1981; 57: 1970-1972. Goel A.K., Jiang S.C. Genetic determinants of virulence, antibiogram and altered biotype among the Vibrio cholerae Ol isolates from different cholera outbreaks in India. Infect. Genet. Evol. 2009 Jul 4. [Epub ahead of print] Ibrahim M.S., Maged Z.A., Haron A. ef al.

Antibiotics and immunity: effects of antibiotics on natural killer, antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and antibody production. Chemioterapia 1987; 6: 426-430. Ibrahim M.S., Maged Z.A., Haron A. et al. Antibiotics and immunity: effects of antibiotics on mitogen responsiveness of lymphocytes and interleukin-2 production.

Chemioterapia 1988; 7: 369-372. Kingston R.E., Sheen J., Moore D. Isotopic assays for reporter gene activity. Curr. Pro- toc. Mol. Biol. 2001; 9: unit 9.7A. Kristian S.A., Timmer A.M., Liu G.Y. et al. Impairment of innate immune killing mechanisms by bacteriostatic antibiotics. FASEB J. 2007; 21: 1107-1116. Labro M.T. Effect of antimicrobial agents on polymorphonuclear neutrophil functions. In: Antimicrobial agents and intracellular pathogens. Ed. by D. Raoult. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 1993: 87-135. Labro M.T. Experimental evaluation of antibiotics as immunomodulators. J. Chemother. 1994; 6: 11-15. Labro M.T. Interference of Antibacterial Agents with Phagocyte Functions: Immu-nomodulation or Immuno-Fairy Tales? Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 2000; 13: 615-650. Laval A., Viso M., Berhanu A., Kerveillant- Lenoire S. Immunomodulator effects of 2 antibiotics, chloramphenicol and kitasamy- cin, in the chicken. Ann. Rech. Vet. 1988; 19: 259-266. Madan J., Kaushik D., Sardana S,, Mishra D. Effect of ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol on humoral immune response elicited by bovine albumin encapsulated in niosomes. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2007; 42: 905-910. Mandal B., Haider K.K., Dey S.K. et al. Development and physical characterization of chloramphenicol loaded biodegradable nanoparticles for prolonged release. Pharmazie. 2009; 64: 445-449. Miljkovic-Selimovic B., Babic T., Kocic B., Ristic L. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of thermophilic Campylobacters isolated from patients in the town of Nis. Vojnosa- nit Pregl. 2009; 66: 522-526. Mulvey M.R., Boyd D.A., Olson A.B. et al. The genetics of Salmonella genomic island 1. Microbes. Infect. 2006; 8:1915-1922. Nara P.L., Davis L.E., Lauerman L.H. et al. Effects of chloramphenicol on the development of immune responses to canine distemper virus in beagle pups. J. Vet. Pharmacol. Ther. 1982; 5: 177-185. Nissen-Druey C. Pathophysiology of aplastic anaemia. Baillieres Clin. Haematol. 1989; 2: 37-49. PaezP.L., Becerra M.C., Albesa I. Chloramphenicol-induced oxidative stress in human neutrophils. Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 2008; 103: 349-353. Steel C., Wan Q., Xu X.H. Single live cell imaging of chromosomes in chloramphenicol-induced filamentous Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Biochemistry 2004; 43: 175-182. Turton J.A., Fagg R., Sones W.R. etal. Characterization of the myelotoxicity of chloramphenicol succinate in the B6C3F1 mouse. Int. J. Exp. Pathol. 2006; 87: 101-112. Valle E., Guiney D.G. Characterization of Salmonella-induced cell death in human macrophage-like THP-1 cells. Infect. Im- mun. 2005; 73: 2835-2840.

Vecchione J.J., Alexander ., Sello J.K. Two

Distinct Major Facilitator Superfamily Drug Efflux Pumps Mediate Chloramphenicol Resistance in Streptomyces coelicolor. An- timicrob. Agents Chemother. 2009; 53: 46734677. Voiculescu C., Stanciu L., Voiculescu M. et al. Experimental study of antibiotic- induced immunosuppression in mice. II. Th, Ts and NC cell involvement. Comp.

Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 1983; 6: 301-312. Wafzig V., Ruflerf K. The detection of chloramphenicol allergy by leucocyte migration inhibition test in the skin chamber. Allerg. Immunol. (Leipz.) 1977; 23: 69-78. Yuan Z.R., Shi Y. Chloramphenicol induces abnormal differentiation and inhibits apoptosis in activated T cells. Cancer Res. 2008; 68: 4875-4881.

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